Mega structures are nowadays commonly seen almost everywhere in the world. Because of the advancement of technology and the improvement of machinery, tall sky scrapers and many other infrastructures are already made possible. Ten engineering marvels of engineers are as follows.
10. Danyang Kunshan Grand Bridge
The bridge was inaugurated on 30th of June in 2011. The Span of bridge is 260 feet with a basement of 2000 pillars carry the longest bridge with the help of steel cables. Almost 10,000 workers built this bridge and completed this mega project. The length of the Bridge is 540,700 ft. (102 miles). This bridge passes over the water and crosses Yang Cheeng Lake having a length of 6 miles. Danyang Kunshan Grand Bridge is the part of Jinghu railroad, which is 819 miles long. The interesting thing is that the two largest bridges suppressed by this Grand Bridge are also of China. So, China is the country having 3 largest bridges in the world. The bridge also consists over 450,000 tons of steel structure, which explains the high number of workers involved.
9. Millau Viaduct Bridge
Bridges are normally considered to be the engineer’s area of expertise rather than the architect’s. But the architecture of infrastructure has a powerful impact on environment. The Millau Viaduct, designed in collaboration with engineers, illustrates how the architect can play an integral role in bridge design. This bridge is located in Southern France; the bridge connects the motorway from Paris to Barcelona crossing the River Tarn, which runs through a wide gap between two plateaus. A reading of the geography suggested two possible approaches: to cross the river, the geological generator of the landscape; or there was the challenge of distance of the 2.5 kilo-meters from one plateau to the other.
The bridge has the best possible span between cable-stayed columns. It is delicate, transparent, and uses the minimum material, which makes it less costly to construct. Each of its sections spans 350 meters and its columns range in height from 75 meters to 235 meters and is higher than the Eiffel Tower. This is further 90 meters above the road deck. To accommodate the expansion and contraction of the concrete deck, each column splits into two thinner, more flexible columns below the roadway, forming an A-frame above deck level. This structure creates a dramatic figure and crucially it makes the minimum intervention in the landscape.
8. Three Gorges Dam
The Three Gorges dam is the china’s massive hydro-engineering ambition which faces “urgent problems, in spite of the fact, the state council said the dam had pressing geological, human and ecological problems. It was identified in the report that the Gorges Dam had a dreadful impact on downstream river transport and water supplies. Since the start of construction in 1992 about 16m tons of concrete have been poured into the giant barrier across the Yangtze River, creating a reservoir that stretches almost the length of Britain and drives 26 giant turbines which generates electricity.
The world’s biggest hydro-power plant boasts a total generating capacity of 18,200 MW and the ability to help domestic to deal with floods that threaten the Yangtze delta each summer.
But it has proved expensive and controversial due to the re-housing of 1.4 million people and the flooding of more than 1,000 towns and villages. Pollution, buildup and landslides have plagued the reservoir area. Given the £24bn cost and political prestige at stake, the government takes care for many years on the dam’s achievements.
7. The Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is one of the greatest marvels of modern technology. The fundamental quest of the human spirit enables us to build an incredible über-accelerator to explore the very nature of reality. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a colossal scientific instrument near Geneva, spans between Switzerland and France. It is about 100 meters underground. It was developed to boost the study of smallest known particles by a gigantic tool that accelerates them. It will revolutionize our understanding, from the diminutive knowledge of world within atoms. Two beams of subatomic particles called “Hadrons” either protons or lead ions, travel in opposite directions inside the circular accelerator, gaining energy with every lap. Physicists use the LHC to recreate the conditions by colliding the two beams head-on at very high energy. Teams of physicists from around the world analyze the particles created in the collisions using special detectors in a number of experiments dedicated to the LHC.
Many studies about particle physics and fundamental laws of nature have served the science for years but the whole story is still not exposed. Large Hadrons Collider discloses further knowledge of particles from experimental data through high energies that reaches these small particles under study, challenging those who seek confirmation of established knowledge.
Pan-STARRS is an acronym for Panoramic Survey Telescope Rapid Response System. It is an innovative design for a wide-field imaging facility developed at the University of Hawaii’s Institute for Astronomy. In order to observe entire available sky, the engineers combined relatively small collection of mirrors with a large digital camera consequently produced an economical observing system. The prototype single-mirror telescope PS1 is now operational on Mount Haleakala; scientific research program is being undertaken by the PS1 Science Consortium, a collaboration between ten research organizations in four countries. A key objective of Pan-STARRS is to identify and characterize Earth-approaching objects, both asteroids comets that might create a danger to our planet. It’s also ideal for research in several other astronomical areas, particularly those which involve an aspect of time inconsistency. Pan-STARRS make it to see the Objects in the Inner Solar System and it is also capable to see the object outer the Solar System and now we can see Galaxy properties better than ever before.
5. Langeled Pipeline
The Langeled Pipeline is the longest underwater pipeline, measuring 746 miles (1,200 km) long from Norway to the U.K. Costing 10 million USD to develop. It was constructed for Norwegian Hydro to carry 70 million cubic yards (45 million m3) of gas to heat homes in the United Kingdom. The Langeled project will provide 20 percent of overall gas supple to United Kingdom. Lead by Ormen Lange, the project was completed in 2006; nine years after Norwegian Hydro first discovered an oil field 2,953 feet (900 m) below the earth’s surface in the sea. A total of 3,000 workers involved in the construction of this pipeline under the sea using special equipment.
4. Hoover Dam
The Hoover Dam is situated in Hill area known as Black Canyon between Arizona and Nevada, around thirty miles from Las Vegas, at the bottom of Lake Mead. During the Great recession, as jobs were not available, thousands of men and their families came to Black Canyon to build the Hoover Dam. The Hoover Dam makes Arizona an inspiring sightseeing. The project of Hoover Dam designed to change Colorado River into a hydroelectric power source for the region’s growing populace and continuous water supply to the rest of Area. Before the dam was built, the Colorado River flowed freely through Black Canyon. Today, the entire area is changed into the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.
Construction of the dam began in 1931 and completed by 1936, two years later than schedule. Initially it was given a name as Boulder Dam, but it was afterward renamed after President Herbert Hoover, who had been one of the original proponents of the project. American Society of Civil Engineers declares this dam of America’s Seven Modern Civil Engineering Wonders, and it also stands as a National Historic Landmark.
3. Aircraft Carrier USS GEORGE H.W. BUSH (CVN-77)
USS George H. W. Bush, its Construction began in 2001 at the Northrop Grumman Newport News shipyard and was completed in 2009 at a cost of $6.2 billion. She is home ported at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia. USS George H. W. Bush stretches 1,092 feet and displaces over 100,000 tons, making her one of the world’s largest warships (though she is slightly shorter than USS Enterprise) but equipped with latest technology which was not used before. Her top speed exceeds more than 30 knots and it is powered with two nuclear reactors, she can operate for more than 20 years without refueling.
2. Floating Green Echo Cities
Lilypad Project is the most amazing green wonders and certainly the extreme from being built but, it is an amazing concept. The idea is to create several floating independent maritime eco-city islands. Each one would be able to provide accommodation to more than 50,000 residents and would support a great deal of biodiversity. It has collecting pools at its centers which assembles water and filter it for use. Two applications of solar type are used. The first one is a semi-transparent solar window is used, facing the open-air, inner vortex; and the second is a glass with a printed array of solar cells spaced to create partial shading, used as a solar roof material. In addition, when the structure is anchor and as thrusters for force when Gyre is under way underwater nacelle’s function both as tidal producer. The structure manages undersea pressures and reduces stress due to its shape. Rainwater is harvested in the inner vortex and gravity fed to the water purification system at the base of the Gyre. Mechanical systems and emergency freshwater storage is the deepest portion of the structure.